该模型由Oliver于1981年开发，是关于测量客户满意度的问题。期望-不确定模型表明，消费者对目标产品或服务的满意度与他们的感知和期望之间的主观比较成正比。大多数著名的食品和饮料公司直接询问他们的顾客关于他们的看法或评价，这些看法或评价是建立在比较的基础上的，他们采用的是“比预期差或比预期好”的量表。因此，该工具断言消费者的满意度是与主观不确定性相关的直接函数(Kandampully et al.， 2014)。同样，Churchill和Suprenant指出，客户期望水平和对特定产品或服务的看法是影响满意度的重要因素。这个工具在快餐业中经常使用。顶级酒店的餐饮行业遵循这一模式，这样就可以将酒店的服务、产品和设施的预期质量与酒店目前向客人提供的服务质量进行比较。成长中的食品和饮料行业的顶级品牌，如Chipotle和AFCE。
It is also known as service quality model and it is widely utilized for measuring customer satisfaction. Zeithaml developed this measurement tools in 1985 with the integration of some specific terms, such as- tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance as well as empathy. Against all of these components of the SERVQUAL tool, the satisfaction levels of the customers are measured and then assessed (Hollensen, 2015). This tool is better defined as the difference present between the expectations of the consumers for the offered services and that of the perceptions of the consumers towards the services that are actually received. Major players of hospitality industry, like- Hilton Hotel and Yum Brands, Inc. follow this model to measure the level of customer satisfaction so that gaps between expected services and perceived services, service delivery and perceptions of service quality, perceptions of value for money and management perceptions as per the consumer expectations can be measured.
This model is developed by Oliver in 1981 in relation to the issue of measuring customer satisfaction. The expectancy-disconfirmation model suggests that the consumer satisfaction linked with a target product or a service is proportionate with the subjective comparisons present between their perceptions and their expectations. Most of the eminent food and beverage companies directly ask their customers about their perceptions or the evaluations which are based on comparisons and they employ it by utilizing a scale of “worse than or better than expected”. So, this tool asserts that consumer satisfaction is a direct function associated with subjective disconfirmation (Kandampully et al., 2014). Similarly, Churchill and Suprenant noted that customer expectation level and perceptions towards a particular product or service are important factors which influence the satisfaction factor. This tool is frequently used in the fast-food business. The food and beverage sector of top hoteliers follows this model so that comparison can be made between the expected quality of services, products and facilities to that of what the hoteliers are currently offering to the guests. The top brand names of growing food and beverage sector like- Chipotle and AFCE.