利物浦论文代写-市场工具的理论背景

本文是讲市场工具的理论背景,以市场为基础的工具对环境融资规划至关重要。以市场为基础的工具的目的是提出一种环境管理的方法,侧重于国家资本资产管理的经济学。以市场为基础的工具的设计有许多复杂性,有效地应用以市场为基础的工具必须以其适当的选择为基础。本篇利物浦论文代写文章由英国论文通AssignmentPass辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

Market based instruments are critical for environmental finance planning. The purpose of market based instruments is to present a way for environmental management that focuses on the economics of national capital assets management. There are many complexities in the design of the market based instruments and the effective application of market based instruments would have to be based on their proper selection.
Market based instruments can be classified as price-based instruments, the rights-or quantity-based instruments, and market friction instruments (Ecorys, 2011). The price-based instruments are those instruments that alter the prices of goods and services. The prices are altered based on the form of environmental impact that they will have. Some of the more common examples in market based instruments can be seen in the form of the price based instruments. For instance, consider the taxation that is imposed on water use, which is an example of a price based instrument. Similarly, the taxation that is imposed on the creation of subsidies when environmentally friendly fuels are made use of by the company as opposed to some other fossil fuel use is also an example of a price based instrument.
The rights or quantity based instruments are a form of instruments that are seen to be designed for the purpose of controlling the environmental resource quality to the right level. The emphasis in this MBI is on monitoring (Preston and Shackelford, 2002). In the case of price based instruments, the emphasis is on prices. In the case of rights or quantity based instruments, the emphasis is on control of quantity. This emphasis on control of quantity would mean that at all times, a desired level in quality is constrained (Jordan et al., 2003). An example of this rights or quantity MBI is the emissions control system that is available in the European Union. Here, carbon offset is seen to be selected and this would help in emission control. The final classification is the market friction instruments. The market friction instruments are those instruments that are used to create some form of stimulating effect in the market. The purpose of the stimulating effect is to ensure that some desired environmental outcome is achieved. Information flow in the market about resource efficiency concerns is usually achieved. In the case of the product market, this is a very efficient market based instrument. However, this is not the most widely used compared to price based instrument in environment finance planning. Eco-labelling is an example of market friction instruments. Eco-labelling is particularly useful in the case of marine ecosystem or water ecosystem concerns (Potts and Haward, 2006). For instance, consumer preferences in the marine or water ecosystem product could be made more focused on the sustainability initiatives adapted in the industry (Jacquet and Pauly, 2007). For instance, eco-labelling could be made use of for indicating whether fish or other sea food has been sourced in an environmentally friendly way. Consumer can base their purchase decisions on this factor. Ecolabelling is however an initiative that is still adapted by large scales fisheries.

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