Robert House in 1993 launched the GLOBE project which studied different leadership styles in over 60 countries. GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness. The aim of the GLOBE project is to study how different cultures across the world define leadership.It studied 18000 leaders from 825 organizations in 62 countries. The countries were referred to as societal cultures and were clubbed into 10 societal clusters: Anglo, Latin Europe, Germanic Europe, Nordic Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle-East, Southern Asia and Confucian Asia.
Country’s cultures are studied on nine dimensions: future orientation, performance orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, humane orientation, assertiveness, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and gender egalitarianism. It revealed some universal characteristics of leaders as well as culture specific attributes. The major question answered by GLOBE researchers was to what extent the practices and values associated with leadership are universal. They identified 21 primary leadership dimensions or “first-order practices” (House, Javidan, Hanges, and Dorfman, 2002). GLOBE identified the following leadership attributes: Charismatic/value-based, participative, team-oriented, autonomous, humane-oriented and self-protective.
Charismatic leadership was found to be the most effective form of leadership. Participative leadership positively influenced employee performance only in the United States. Team oriented leadership style considered moderately desirable across cultures. Concern for gender egalitarianism was positively linked with good leadership in majority of the cultures. Vision, providing encouragement, foresight, trustworthiness, positiveness, dynamism and proactiveness were elements of transformational leadership that appeared universally. Charismatic and transformational leadership styles are the most preferred styles across cultures (Javidan, Dorfman, De Luque, and House, 2006).