美国论文代写:社会对从众的压力

美国论文代写:社会对从众的压力

Willis对12名年龄在15岁左右的非学术、白人、工薪阶层未成年人进行了研究。他们还有一年的时间完成学业。这项研究的参与者属于一个工业城镇“哈默镇”。威利斯观察了参与者。对参与者所表现出的行为进行被动观察,并积极参与课堂活动。参与者来自不同的社会经济背景。有人指出,在低收入的工人阶级中,父母和老师支持他们的生活方式(Willis, 1977)。他们对自己的工作有一种自豪感,经常贬低其他职业。直接的家庭环境和学校环境,使工人阶级文化的自豪感油然而生。为学生们创造了一种反学校文化。一种意识形态产生了,来自这些背景的学生总是被推到蓝领工作岗位上去。从Willis的研究结果中,我们讨论了社会整合对人们职业选择的影响、性别认同以及男权影响以及马克思主义意识形态。

美国论文代写:社会对从众的压力

Willis采用一种批判的民族志的方法来理解人们行为的原因。人民的行动源于他们的意识形态和观念观念。由于人们来自不同的社会,这种观念上的差异是不可避免的。人们根据自己的知识和习惯的道德体系来制定决策。威利斯将这种意识形态归为“游戏领域”。在这个范例中,有两个概念是普遍存在的。它是渗透和限制概念(Willis, 1977)。在较低的经济群体中,人们选择体力劳动的道路有一种内在的压力。人们认为他们的职业是一项积极的工作,而其他的职业则是贬低。渗透和局限是使人与社会经济群体产生偏好的两种意识形态。渗透是一种意识形态,用来激起集体主义的冲动(Willis, 1977)。人民更倾向于争取他人的权利。除此之外,小伙子们从小就开始做繁重的工作。他们被迫从事体力劳动,周围的人告诉他们,除了体力劳动,他们什么也做不了。

美国论文代写:社会对从众的压力

The research of Willis was conducted with 12 non-academic, white, working class minors, and aged around 15. They had one more year to complete their schooling. The participants of the study belong to an industrial town ‘Hammertown’. Willis observed the participants. There was passive observation of the actions exhibited by the participants and active participation in the class activities. The participants were from different socio economic backgrounds. It was stated that in the lower income working class, parents and the teachers supported their lifestyle (Willis, 1977). There was a sense of pride in their work and they often demeaned other profession. The immediate familial surroundings and the schools nudged the pride of the working-class culture. There was a counter-school culture that was created for the students. An ideology was created that the students from these backgrounds were invariably nudged towards the blue-collar jobs. From the findings of Willis, the impact of social conformity in the vocation choice of the people, the gendered identity along with patriarchal impacts and the Marxists ideology have been discussed.

美国论文代写:社会对从众的压力

Willis adopts a critical ethnographic’ methodology to understand the reasons for the behaviour of the people. The actions of the people stem from their ideology and perceived notions. As people come from different societies, this difference in perception is inevitable. The people form decisions based on their knowledge and the system of morality that they are used to. Willis attributes this ideology as ‘field of play’. In this paradigm, there are two concepts that are found to be prevalent. It is the penetration and limitation concept (Willis, 1977). There is an innate pressure for the people to choose the path of manual labour in the lower economic group. The people consider their profession to be a positive work and other profession to be demeaning. Penetration and limitations are the two ideologies that make the person and the socio-economic group develop preference. Penetration is the ideology that is used to provoke impulses that are more collectivistic (Willis, 1977). The people are more attuned towards the rights of other people. Apart from this, the lads are made to do grunt work from a very early age. They are forced into manual labour and are told by the people around them that they cannot amount to anything more than manual labour.