意大利公民問題的首要關切包括第二代移民。這類人必須通過各種官僚程序才能獲得意大利國籍。這些規定非常嚴格，比如，在意大利連續居住18年，必須在年滿18年後的一年內提交意願聲明，以及在出生時登記註冊等。儘管這些規定是爲了簡化發放公民身份的程序，並打擊僞造案件，但這些年輕一代所面臨的苦難讓他們在自己的公民和朋友中間感到奇怪。他們對居住船的最後期限感到不安，甚至可能被拒絕。這第二代人沒有集中精力和計劃他們的職業和未來，他們必須更關心必須履行的手續，以便使他們能夠留在這個國家。對不續簽居留許可的恐懼和返回原籍國的義務是這一代人的另一種恐懼。由於他們一直生活在外國，他們在精神上不屬於他們祖先的國家。此外，由於沒有公民身份，他們甚至不合法地屬於居住國。這些不確定性帶來了許多挫折，歧視感和對自己的生活和未來的懷疑(“18 Ius Soli Screener”)。
Issues Faced by the Second Generation Immigrants
It is historically proven that all around the world various strains and issues occur over immigrations. The issues of belonging and nationalism have been matter of examination for the world anthropologists. The study of the politics of the association, predominantly with regards to the experiences of immigrants and the novel forms of citizenships. In Italy, the issues concerning immigrants have also become a major concern. The magnitude can be understood by the fact that in recent years Italy has been entered by migrants from numerous countries, like Libya, Syria, Mongolia, etc. Reportedly, Italy has the fifth largest number of immigrants counted to around 277.6 thousand. As per 2014 data, the comparative part of native-born immigrants within the total number of immigrants is less than 10 % of all immigrations in Italy. The data of 2014 also reveals that Italy have given citizenship to 129.9 thousand immigrants, which is the second highest figure in the world. As compared to the rest of the world, the highest increase in giving the citizenships since 2013, is shown by Italy with total number of increase of 29,200 citizenships (Eurostat).
The prime concern of the citizenship issue of Italy incorporates the second generation immigrants. The people in this category have to go through various bureaucratic procedures to obtain the citizenship of Italy. The rules are strict like, continuous residency in Italy for 18 years, necessity to give declaration of willingness within a year after reaching 18 years and the requirement of enlisting in the local registry at time of birth, etc. Though the provisions are made to streamline the procedure of issuing citizenships and discouraging fake cases, the ordeal faced by these young generations make them feel odd among their own fellow citizens and friends. They feel precarious about the deadlines of their resident-ship which could even be declined. This second generation instead of focusing and planning about their career and future, have to be more concerned about the formalities that must be fulfilled in order to enable them to stay in the country. The fear of non-renewal of the residence permit and obligation to go back to the country of origin is another matter of fear for this generation. Since they have been living all their lives in a foreign country, they do not mentally belong to the country of their ancestors. Moreover, because of no citizenship, they not even legally belong to their country of residence. These uncertainties bring lots of frustration, sense of discrimination and doubts about their own lives and future (“18 Ius Soli Screener”).
Along with these issues, the increasing cases of racism which even involves violence has also become an alarming matter of concern for Italy. The recent past has seen several cases of local youths attacking the “foreigners” whom they look down upon and do not recognise them as a part of their community. The cases like insults and opposition of Cécile Kyenge, the Italo-Congolese Minister of Integration must be dealt with strictness and in a time-bound way or else they would start the trend of discrimination (Smythe). Lack of opportunities like in case of sports etc. also lowers the morale of the second generation immigrants (Pagotto). Till the time, these immigrants do not attain the citizenship and they are denied all the political and civil rights of the Italian people. Moreover, the government ensures to make use of these immigrants for the employment which is either low paid, risky, or is not attracting the indigenous Italian people.