al – shatanawi等人(2014)通过比较客户对质量的感知水平与组织目前的服务质量，得出客户满意度。结果可能是对该组织的服务质量的满意或不满意。感知水平与现有水平之间的差距将决定对服务质量的不满或满意程度。客户感知受意识水平、市场竞争、客户需求发展和技术发展等因素的影响(Bansal & Taylor 2015)。这些因素在顾客的头脑中创造了三个不同的层次，导致顾客期望的产生。这些层次在服务层次上是足够的，服务和客户之间的关系需要可预测性或一般性服务的可用性。客户期望进一步决定了感知价值，Hisam, Sanyal & Ahmad(2016)探索了这种关系。在本研究中，有形性、反应性、保证性、移情性和可靠性是顾客发展服务期望的基本参数。这确立了服务质量完全依赖于客户感知的事实(Khan & Fasih 2014)。因此，作者认为识别顾客的需求对于保证足够的服务质量以留住现有的顾客是至关重要的。本研究采用SERVQUAL模型。根据作者的观点，该模型有助于识别服务交付各个方面的差距。SERVQUAL模型帮助识别和定义服务的感知质量。服务质量是通过评价顾客感知的差异和组织能够满足顾客需求和需要的程度来确定的。可以指出，客户的需求和需求是客户期望发展的重要组成部分。Arthur等(2016)在研究中发现，该模型采用五个维度来定义感知质量。它们是“有形的”、“可靠的”、“反应能力”、“保证”和“同理心”。这些参数的相对重要性对于建立顾客的感知质量是很重要的。这些差距是顾客满意的前兆。Jahanshahi等人(2011)发现满足感知质量对于保证顾客的品牌忠诚度至关重要。忠诚度被定义为顾客行为的最后阶段(Jahanshahi et al. 2011)。顾客满意度作为顾客的一种认知状况，是由作者建立起来的，它有助于培养顾客的忠诚度。管理意涵是要求管理关注于不断变化的感知质量的五个维度。Iddrisu等人(2015)在研究中定义了这些维度。这项研究揭示了手机产业“有形性”方面的重要性。此外，客户天生就对提供给他们的手机服务了如指掌(Vijay Anand & Selvaraj 2013)。除此之外，电信行业的客户更清楚竞争对手的好处。此外，可靠性已被确定为服务行业的关键参数。Iddrisu等人(2015)的研究表明，顾客投诉的增加是顾客感知到的服务质量下降的一个可识别标志。
Customer Satisfaction as explained by Al-Shatanawi et al. (2014) is achieved when the customers compare their perceived level of quality with the current service quality of an organisation. The outcome can be satisfaction or dissatisfaction towards the service quality of that organisation. The gap between the perceived level and existing level will determine the level of dissatisfaction or satisfaction towards the quality of service. The perception of the customer is governed by factors such as awareness level, competition in the market, development of customer needs and development of technology (Bansal & Taylor 2015). These factors create three different levels within the mind of the customers which results in the creation of customer expectation. These levels are adequate in the level of services, the relationship between service and customer wants availability of predictable or generic services. Customer expectation further determines the perceived value and the relationship are explored by Hisam, Sanyal & Ahmad (2016). In this research, tangibility, responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy and reliability form the basic parameters according to which customers develop their service expectation. This establishes the fact that the quality of service is entirely dependent on the perception of the customers (Khan & Fasih 2014). Hence, the author establishes that identification of the needs of the customers is critical towards ensuring adequate service quality to retain the existing customers. The SERVQUAL model has been utilized in this research. As per the author, this model helps to identify the gaps in various aspects of service delivery. SERVQUAL model helps identify and define the perceived quality of a service. Service quality is established by evaluating the difference in perception of the customers and the extent to which the organization is able to address the needs and wants of the customer. It can be pointed out that the needs and wants of the customer form an integral part towards the development of the customer expectation. Arthur et al. (2016) in the study identified that this model employs five dimensions to define the perceived quality. They are ‘Tangibles’, ‘Reliability’, ‘Responsiveness’, Assurance’, ‘and Empathy’. The relative importance of these parameters is important towards establishing the perceived quality of the customers. These gaps are the precursor towards customer satisfaction. Jahanshahi et al. (2011) identified that the meeting the perceived quality is critical towards ensuring the brand loyalty of the customers. Loyalty has been defined as the final stage of customer behaviour (Jahanshahi et al. 2011). The customer satisfaction is established by the author as the cognitive situation of a customer and it helps develops the loyalty. The managerial implication is that the management is required to be focused on the five dimension of perceived quality which is constantly changing. These dimensions are defined in the research by Iddrisu et al. (2015). This research reveals the importance of ‘Tangibility’ aspect of the Cellular industry. Further, the customers are inherently knowledgeable about the cellular services that are provided to them (Vijay Anand & Selvaraj 2013). In addition to this, the customers in the telecom industry are more aware of the benefits of the competitor. Further, Reliability has been identified as the key parameter in the Service industry. The research of Iddrisu et al. (2015) established that increased customer complaint is an identifiable mark for a degraded service quality as perceived by the customers.