Adults feel motivated to learn when they have a specific goal, and mostly for purpose of advancing the career. There is no mandatory obligation to learn among adults, which refers that they end up dropping classes if according to them the classes are not significant for meeting their goals and objective (Merriam, 2008). Also maximum numbers of adult learners are known to be having higher motivation and task orientation. Adults also tend to be facing a number of challenges like various career opportunities, fewer opportunities to rely on stable social structure, and even deal with ageing parents and family responsibility.
Children perceive the condition of absolute dependency on adult. Other than the absolute biological functions, the needs of children have to be taken care of. However, the overall concept of self- dependency is reinforced and encouraged by the world of adult, and hence, the preferences and aspects of learning for adults and children are different (Mezirow, 2000). Most of the times, adults make voluntary entry in educational programs, while ensuring to manage their classes around the responsibilities of work and family. The adult learning theory of andragogy has key focus on learner by nature and is grounded in accordance with the theory of humanistic learning. The main assumption of andragogy is in context with the independent ability and self- concept of learners for directing their own process of learning. Adult learners hold a sense of self- reliance, independence and autonomy and there is self- direction of goals (Ntiri, 2013). Adults who have experienced schooling previously tend to be under construction as learners who are dependent, and it is the key preference of educator for moving student from their previous habits, shaping them within learners of self- direction, while encouraging them to take up the responsibility for their learning. And hence, there is huge significant of the four principles of adult learning that are learner centralization, activeness, engagement, and relevance.