英国论文没过怎么办:最低单位酒精价格

英国论文没过怎么办:最低单位酒精价格

在确定了区位因素的影响后,下一步的政策是税收的性质。英国政府打算采用最低酒精单价。这一政策已经在一些国家和地方一级实施,比如不列颠哥伦比亚省(Stockwell et al., 2013)和萨斯喀彻温省(Saskatchewan, Stockwell et al., 2012)以及加拿大、乌克兰、俄罗斯等国(Chalmers et al., 2013)。然后还有其他一些研究评估了最低酒精价格在不同国家的预期效果,如Chalmers et al.(2013)和Carragher and Chalmers(2011)研究了这一政策在澳大利亚的影响;Record and Day(2009)和Knai et al.(2015)对英国进行了分析;Sloan, Reilly和Schenzler(1994)在美国进行了类似的研究;Gilligan, Kuntsche和Gmel(2012)进行了跨国分析,Elder等人(2010)对该主题进行了一般性综述。

英国论文没过怎么办:最低单位酒精价格

研究普遍认为,提高任何形式的酒精价格,即通过提高税收或提高单位酒精的最低价格,都有助于减少酒精消费及其相关的不良影响。g Knai et al. (2015), Stockwell et al. (2013), Stockwell et al.(2012)。这一效应在一般人群以及酗酒者等亚群体中得到了研究,如Record和Day(2009)。在所有团体指出增加酒精价格会减少酒精消费在短期内和长期(赵et al . 2013),数据显示滞后协会的十二个月之间的价格变化和食用酒精。Chalmers et al.(2013)在类似的思路上认为,澳大利亚应该在澳大利亚peak preventive health agency的处方中加入这一或类似的政策,主要是因为即使在饮酒最多的地区,公众舆论也认为政府应该更多地参与酒精控制。

英国论文没过怎么办:最低单位酒精价格

Having established the influence of location, the next part of the concerned policy is the nature of taxation. The government of UK intends to apply a minimum alcohol unit price. This policy is already in several nations and sub-national levels like British Columbia (Stockwell et al., 2013) and Saskatchewan (Stockwell et al., 2012) among others in Canada, Ukraine, Russia, among others (Chalmers et al., 2013). Then there are several other studies which have assessed the expected effectiveness of minimum alcohol pricing in different countries like Chalmers et al. (2013) and Carragher and Chalmers (2011) studied the impact of this policy in Australia; Record and Day (2009) and Knai et al. (2015) did the analysis for UK; Sloan, Reilly and Schenzler (1994) conducted a similar study for the USA; Gilligan, Kuntsche and Gmel (2012) performed a cross country analysis and Elder et al. (2010) conducted a generic review of the topic.

英国论文没过怎么办:最低单位酒精价格

The studies generally agree that increasing the price of alcohol in any form i.e. via increased taxation or increase in minimum price of unit alcohol, contributes towards less alcohol consumption and the associated ill effects e.g Knai et al. (2015), Stockwell et al. (2013), Stockwell et al. (2012). This effect has been studied in general population as well sub-groups like heavy drinkers e.g. Record and Day (2009). In all the groups the indication is that increased price of alcohol tends to reduce alcoholic consumption in the immediate term and in the long term (Zhao et al. 2013), for the data show a lagged association of up to twelve months between price change and fall in consumption of alcohol. Chalmers et al. (2013) on similar lines suggests that Australia should incorporate this or similar policy against the prescription of Australia’s peak preventive health agency mainly because the public opinion even in the most drinking areas is that the government should be involved more in alcohol control.