英国论文reference格式:血栓的临床表现和治疗

英国论文reference格式:血栓的临床表现和治疗

临床表现

深静脉血栓形成的症状和体征因人而异。当血凝块进入肺部时,它会引起肺栓塞。这是一种威胁生命的状况。

呼吸短促、胸痛加重、头晕、脉搏加快和咳血需要立即急救(Schwarz et al., 2003)。

一条或两条腿肿胀和疼痛。肿胀的程度和位置被记录下来。膝盖以下肿胀称为远端深静脉血栓形成,或到达腹股沟称为近端深静脉血栓形成(Anderson & Spencer, 2003)。

小腿肌肉的压痛或抽筋是这种疾病的征兆。

四肢发炎或发红。

皮肤温度升高(Anderson & Spencer, 2003)。

在严重梗阻的病例中也可观察到紫绀。发绀是皮肤发蓝,是血液循环不良或氧合不足的标志。

有些病人在旅行时也建议服用阿司匹林,以防止血栓的形成。

这些是这种疾病的一些临床表现。

英国论文reference格式:血栓的临床表现和治疗

治疗

这种情况的治疗方法如下。

超声波、血液检查、静脉造影、核磁共振扫描都被用来检测这种疾病。在这些DVT病例中,使用血液稀释剂或抗凝剂。这是防止血栓形成的方法。依诺肝素、达尔特帕林、方达肝素、华法林或利伐沙班均为处方药(Anderson & Spencer, 2003)。

组织纤溶酶原激活剂(TPA)是规定的情况下,高度进展的条件。这主要是在急诊护理中。

过滤器的规定,以防止血栓形成时,血液稀释剂不能使用(安德森和斯宾塞,2003年)。

压缩长筒袜是用来防止血栓形成的。这可以穿在长时间的旅行,以防止血栓的形成

英国论文reference格式:血栓的临床表现和治疗

Signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis can vary based on individuals. When the blood clot travels to the lungs, it causes pulmonary embolism. This is a life threatening conditions.

Shortness of breath, worsening chest pain, light-headedness, high pulse rate, and coughing blood require immediate emergency care (Schwarz et al., 2003).

Swelling and pain in one or both the legs. The degrees of swelling and the location of the swelling are documented. Swelling below the knees is known as distal deep vein thrombosis or it reaches the groin known as proximal deep vein thrombosis (Anderson & Spencer, 2003).

Tenderness or cramping of the calf muscles is an indication of the disease.

Inflammation or redness in the extremity.

Increase in the skin temperature (Anderson & Spencer, 2003).

Cyanosis is also observed in cases of severe obstruction. Cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the skin that is an indicator of poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of blood.

Aspirin is also suggested to some patients during travel to prevent the formation of clots.

These are some of the clinical manifestations of the disease.

英国论文reference格式:血栓的临床表现和治疗

Treatment

Treatment for this condition is the following.

Ultrasounds, blood test, venography, MRI scan are used to detect the disease. In these cases of DVT, blood thinner or anticoagulants are used. This is the method of preventing the formation of clots. Enoxaparain, dalteparein, fondaparinux, warfarin or rivaroxaban is prescribed (Anderson & Spencer, 2003).

Tissue plasminogen activators (TPA) are prescribed in cases of highly progressed conditions. This is given mostly in emergency care.

Filters are prescribed to prevent clot formation when blood thinners cannot be uses (Anderson & Spencer, 2003).

Compression stockings are given to prevent the formation of clots. This can be worn during long periods of travel to prevent the formation of clots.