从过去的50到60年，文献一直在丰富银行的信用风险和流动性风险。解释银行的运作方式，以及回报来源和主要风险是由两个主要研究方向提供的(Acharya et al .，2014)。这是在银行业宏观经济学理论的考虑下，即金融中介的经典理论，以及产业组织向银行业的方法。金融中介的观点认为，银行是池子里的流动性，因为它既提供了借款人，也为储户提供了现成的案例。这进一步提高了经济的福利，并内化了经济的流动性风险(Brunnermeier,2009)。工业组织的方法认为，银行是在寡头垄断存款和贷款市场中利润最大化的价格接受者，而对存款的需求则是上升的。此外，在利率上升的情况下，向下的需求也面临着贷款需求。在考虑资产方面时，银行将重点放在贷款利率的产生上，而考虑负债方面，银行则倾向于通过存款利率来承担成本。
Almost since the last 50 to 60 years, literature has been in abundance for dealing with the credit risks and liquidity risks of banks. Explaining the way in which banks tend to perform, along with the return sources and major risks are provided by two major strands of research (Acharya et al., 2014). This was under the consideration of macroeconomic theories in banking, namely, the classic theory of financial intermediation, and approach of industrial organization to banking. The view of financial intermediation considers banks as liquidity in pools, for providing both, borrowers and depositors with the readily available case. This further enhanced the welfare of economy and internalized the liquidity risk of economy (Brunnermeier, 2009). The approach of industrial organization has considered banks as the price takers of profit maximizing in oligopoly deposit and loan markets, while upward sloping demand is faced for deposits. Also, demand in downward slope is faced for loans under the increased rates of interest. When considering the asset side, banks focus on the generation of returns by rates of loan interest, and considering the liabilities side, banks hold the tendency of facing costs by interest rates of deposit.