改造是威慑和惩罚正义的另一种选择。丹尼尔·贝尔德认为，改造对罪犯的心理有更消极的影响。在19世纪，康复在证明相当危险方面发挥了重要作用。罪犯通常会得到一本《圣经》，并被隔离在一个没有与囚犯交流的密闭房间里。这导致了罪犯的疯狂，因为他们没有得到适当的关注和治疗。贝尔德给出了一个有力而诚实的观点。一方面，改造寻求罪犯生活的剧烈变化;另一方面，它也可能被证明是精神错乱的原因，正如在19世纪早期所见。(Londono, 2015)一个精神不稳定的人犯了罪，或者犯了一系列同样的罪，需要严肃对待(Londono, 2015)。孤独使冒犯者更难找到安宁。监禁，虽然听起来很残酷，但实际上是一个更好的选择，当涉及到教训或给予正义。康复可以被认为是一种阻止罪犯犯罪的程序，有利于罪犯的治疗，但不能被认为是一种正义的形式。正如Baird在第24段中所解释的，像Paul Bernado这样危险到足以犯下多种罪行的罪犯不能通过送去康复中心得到公正的对待。在这种情况下，康复中心只是作为一种催化剂，让危险的人远离社会，以安全为目的，而不是作为一种惩罚形式。正如第23段所说，犯罪是社区问题(Macionis and Gerber, 2008)。
当时或十九世纪的社会学家认为犯罪是一种或多种社会越轨行为的结果。在许多情况下，贫困、缺乏资源和缺乏许多更可取的东西等不利条件使人误入歧途。对同一个人来说，要理解社会的该做和不该做是不容易的。违法者发现这些规则难以遵守，因此他们变得越轨。众所周知，一个人可以是越轨的，也可以是听话的，因为遵守或不遵守规则只是我们做出的选择，Macionis和Gerber (Baird和Frankel, 2001)。因此，问题的关键在于控制犯罪者居住的环境。它也使人明白好与坏之间的区别。为了使罪犯变得更容易和更好，整个环境都改变了，他们被关在一个封闭的地方，在那里他们的一举一动都能被很好地注意到。很多时候，他们有一个医生和几个护士照顾他们。他们被教导要彬彬有礼，与囚犯交往，有时定期阅读一本圣经，并接受适当的药物治疗(Ben-Naim, Aviv and Hirschberger, 2008)。根据Macionis和Gerber的观点，改造在罪犯的头脑中产生了建设性的本质。
Rehabilitation is an alternative to deterrence and retributive justice. According to Daniel Baird, the rehabilitation has a more negative effect on the minds of the offenders. In the nineteenth century, rehabilitation played a significant role in proving rather dangerous. The offenders were usually given a bible and were isolated in a confined room devoid of intermingling with the inmates. This resulted in the offenders going crazy as they did not get the proper attention and treatment. Baird gives a strong and honest point to think of. On the one hand, rehabilitation seeks a drastic change in the life of the offender; on the other hand, it may also prove to be the cause of insanity as seen in the early nineteenth century. A person, who is not mentally stable, has committed a crime or a series of the same needs to be taken care of in a serious manner (Londono, 2015). Loneliness makes it even more difficult for the offender to find peace. Imprisonment, though sounds harsh, in reality is a better option when it comes to teach a lesson or give justice. Rehabilitation can be considered to be a program that precludes the offender from performing crime and good for his treatment, but it cannot be considered to be a form of justice. As explained by Baird in paragraph 24, a criminal like Paul Bernado who is dangerous enough to commit multiple crimes cannot be given justice by sending to the rehabilitation center. In that case, rehabilitation centers only serve as a catalyst in keeping the dangerous one away from the society for the sake of safety and not as a form of punishment. Again as said by Nigh in paragraph 23, that crime is the community problem (Macionis and Gerber, 2008).
Body 1: Macionis and Gerber
Sociologists of that time or the nineteenth century believe that crime was a result of one or more social deviance. In many cases, unfavourable conditions like poverty, lack of resources and lack of many more desirable things lead a person to go astray. It is not easy for that same person to understand the dos and the don’ts of the society. The offenders find the rules uneasy to follow and hence they become deviant. It is well understood that a person who can be deviant can also be obedient because following or not following the rule is just a choice that we make, Macionis and Gerber (Baird and Frankel, 2001). Hence, the matter is all about controlling the environment where the offender resides. It is also making the person understand the difference between the good and the bad. In order to make things easier and better of the offender the entire environment is changed and they are kept in a confined place where their every move is noticed well. Many times they are provided with a doctor and a handful of nurses who take care of them. They are taught to be well mannered, be social with the inmates, at times given a bible to read on a regular basis and given proper medication (Ben-Naim, Aviv and Hirschberger, 2008). According to Macionis and Gerber, rehabilitation generates a constructive nature in the minds of the offenders.