代寫-蚜蟲密度對嗅覺儀擬寄生吸引力的影響

代寫-蚜蟲密度對嗅覺儀擬寄生吸引力的影響。van- Emden和Wickremasinghe(1992)在Y-tube嗅覺儀中重點檢測了Marsh (Lysiphlebus fabarum和A. rhopalosophi)和Praon和Trioxys的響應,發現它們分別對寄主有吸引力。它被Van-Emden報道(1995),a . rhopalosiphi顯示偏好對小麥品種有一個開發的蚜蟲主機,建議下,女性最終成為條件不成熟的時期,而不是羽化後的經驗,對在協會蚜蟲的寄主植物揮發物。A. ervi被buckton的蕁麻蚜蟲(carnosum小葉蚜蟲)所吸引,田野對面有一群最初收集的A. ervi。在另一項研究中,Zhang和Powell(1983)在A. pisum的收集中發現A. ervi對蕁麻蚜蟲沒有反應。這表明在整個能量場中存在著特化的種族。蚜蟲蜜露以寄主的形式利用,在蚜蟲寄主中普遍存在。接下來論文范文代寫-蚜蟲密度對嗅覺儀擬寄生吸引力的影響分享給留學生閱讀。

In an olfactometer of Y-tube, van- Emden and Wickremasinghe (1992) focused on examining the responses of Marsh (Lysiphlebus fabarum and A. rhopalosophi) and species of Praon and Trioxys and it had been found that all showed attraction to the hosts respectively. It had been reported by Van-Emden (1995) that A. rhopalosiphi showed preference to varieties of wheat over which there had been a development of its aphid host, under the proposal that females ended up becoming conditioned in the period of immature establishment, instead of by the experience of post- eclosion, towards volatiles in association of the host plant of aphid. A. ervi had been attracted to the aphid of nettle, buckton (Microlophium carnosum), over which there had been an original collection of A. ervi across the field. In another research, Zhang and Powell (1983) ended up finding no response by A. ervi to nettle aphid in collection of the A. pisum. This suggests that specialized races are in existence across the field. The utilization of aphid honeydew in the form of host finding kairomone can be considered as common among the parasitods of aphid.

The underlying suggestion is that D. rapae is known for having an innate preference for the crucifer that feeds the system of aphid. Even though these types of experiments consider permitting a number of conclusions, there is an existence of few data from the experiments of the field. Also, it is not necessary that significant response will be implied in an olfactometer for the attraction of longer range within the field.

There seems to be mixed evidence in concern to attract other species of parasitoid to volatiles from plant- host or plant complexes. In a test of olfactometer, the parasitoids of cereal aphid Aphidius ervi and Aphidius uzbekistanicus gave response to leaves un-infested across the host plants. In the Y- tube tests of olfactometer, Van- Emden and Wickremasinghe (1992) also ended up recording great responses by A. rhopalosiphi and A. ervi, the aphid parasitoids to the plants over which there had been rearing of females in comparison with their host aphids However, they gave even more response to the system of plant- host. A. rhopalosiphi ended up showing great response to the specific category of wheat being reared.

In the test of olfactometer, no response of D. rapae had been found by Reed et al. (1995) to the leaves of cabbage. However, there were attractions of females to B. brassicae infesting the leaves with the wheat aphid of Russia, namely, Diuraphis noxia. In another study of wind tunnel, it had been found by Sheehan and Shelton (1989) that there had been a rearing of D. rapae over collards showing increased responses of flight to the plants in comparison with that of potato. Virtually, all insects have a lot of natural enemies. Defensive symbionts can help their host avoid attacking from nature enemies. Directly, since bacteria usually possess pathogenicity genes and produce bio-active contents that function as toxins or deterrents. During symbiotic associations, insects will have these defensive properties. Indirectly, symbiont can stimulate to start the host immune system against invasions or “fight for” limited host resources. This area is real hot in current research. For the interactions between insects and symbionts can be explained in higher trophic levels.

論文范文代寫-蚜蟲密度對嗅覺儀擬寄生吸引力的影響就為留學生分享到這裏。有關更多論文代寫的問題,留學生們可以在線咨詢英國論文通AssignmentPass網站平台客服,此論文代寫平台專業信譽高,論文代寫價格公平合理,擅長寫作科目廣泛,有碩士論文代寫、essay代寫、assignment代寫等論文服務,良好的口碑和豐富的論文代寫經驗值得留學生選擇和信賴!