One of the fundamental tenets of the periodontal theory is the ways to incorporate tissue engineering. There are a number of ways in which the tissue is damaged or lost. This is owing to the impact of trauma and the restoration of the diseases. The potential tissue engineering approach involved the use of periodontal regeneration. These include the use of progenitor cells and the prefabricated three-dimensional construct (36). This is based on the defect site. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to reduce the single cell level to differentiate and produce mature progeny cells. Two kinds of stem cells can be used for the periodontal therapy. They are the embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. The adult stem cells are considered to be the undifferentiated cells that are found in various parts of the adults. When compared with the embryonic stem cells, the adult stem cells exist in various parts of the body. These are easily accessible and lesser controversial in ethical terms. A number of adult stem cells are available for various cell-based tissue engineering (37). Adult stem cells are found to stem from the long time that is form the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. It includes the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or neurogenic stem cells to name a few. The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to direct multiple functions.
In the cases of the dental field, there are many reports which states that this could have yielded better outcomes with the BMSCs in periodontal regeneration and in the cases of sinus augmentation procedure. The technique of auto-transplantation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is an innovative procedure for the periodontal tissue regeneration. In the experimental groups, it has been denuded that the root surface is covered with new cementum and the regenerated periodontal ligament is separated from the bone to the cementum (38). The need to evaluate the bone formation is developed by using the allograft cellular bone matrix. These contain native mesenchymal stem cells. These show higher percentage of the bone content. It is observed that have a relatively shorter healing phase. These encourage rapid initiation of the implant placement or the restoration of the cellular grafting approach. Certain dental-tissue cell is derived from mesenchymal stem cell (39). It is observed that many other stem cells are residing in the specialized tissues isolated. Five different human dental stem cells are used for the process of dental pulp stem cells or from the exfoliated deciduous teeth. Added to this, the periodontal ligament stem cell and the cells obtained from the apical papilla. These are easily accessible. These have been observed to have contrasted with the bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal, which are intimately associated with the dental tissues. A presence of the progenitor cells with the postnatal periodontal ligament speculated from the older times (40). These need to have renewable cell source that are from the normal tissue homeostasis and also in the periodontal ligament cells.