Many researchers have suggested different models of decision making process but most of them came to the conclusion that the decision making behaviour depends upon five processes. These are the recognition of the needs or requirements, search for information, alternative evaluation, decision to purchase and lastly post purchase behaviour or evaluation of the product or disposal of the item. Such behaviour has been recommended by John Dewey, more than 70 years ago.
In the process of decision making, the consumer must have a need to purchase the item. The requirement may be for a particular product or certain features of the product. After recognizing the need or want, the consumers search for information. The information they seek may be in two forms: external and internal. External information comes from advertisement, banners, photographs, labelled packages which offer information according to the needs of the consumers. It may also come from the reference group or membership group. Their opinion also influences the buyer in decision making process. Even the family also influences individuals in making decisions because the individuals acquire morals from the family, and the family shapes the individuals’ personality.
Internal information is previous learning experience or the information stored in the memory. Alternative evaluation helps the consumer to narrow down their choices while selecting of an item. The consumer uses the information stored in their memory and further adds external information to confine their search. The economic situation has a great influence on consumer choices. The individual with high income will purchase expensive items than lower income groups. After making purchase, the consumer sometimes feels tensed or anxious because of the cognitive dissonance. They seek for information from others to reduce dissonance and evade the information of the items that further challenge their decisions. These are the behavioural perspective through which the consumer makes their buying decisions.